Any major conflicting health effects caused by the ingestion of moldy food are well known in both animals and humans. Aflatoxin, one of the most world renown fungal toxins in the IAQ world, has been labeled as a type 1 carcinogen and is pretty much the most active liver carcinogen for humans. In the 1960’s, over 100,000 turkeys were murdered in the U.K. because of peanuts that were aflatoxin contaminated. Ergotism happens to be a mycotoxin disease that is caused by any ingestion of moldy rye. The mycotoxin was the cause of outbreaks of “St. Anthony’s Fire” during the middle ages.
4.) Breathing In Mycotoxins
There are only a few pieces of evidence for conflicting health effects to humans in domestic settings where the exposure to mycotoxins is rather strong. However, the evidence that we have available and any studies regarding conflicting health effects based on the inhalation of mycotoxins is in support of the theory that the risk is low in normal residential and domestic environments. This is primarily because the dosage is so low. For example, the amount of mycotoxin contained in fungal spores is extremely small. A Stachybotrysspore is roughly 9.5 x 7.5 microns in size. The problem is, not all the dosages are low…
Aflatoxins, officially labeled as such in the early 1960s, are other metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are found a variety of staple foods, specifically maize and groundnuts, in most low-income countries. Since they were first discovered, aflatoxins have been widely studied when focusing on what can lead to liver cancer. But, in crop production, other conflicting effects, which include: toxicity and growth and immune impairment, have been immensely reported and these endpoints are just of raising this focus on to studies of exposed people. Studies are still being done today, regardless, Aflatoxins are known to lead to cancer.
Mycotoxicoses, like many other toxicological diseases, can either be acute or chronic. Acute toxicity typically contains a speedy onset and an apparent toxic response, while chronic toxicity is labeled more by low-dose exposure over a long period of time, resulting in cancers and other more or less irreversible effects. The main human and animal health issue of mycotoxin exposure is related to chronic exposure, for example, any cancer induction, kidney toxicity, or even immune suppression. But, the best-known mycotoxin situations are demonstrations of acute effects. Typically, mycotoxin exposure is likely to happen more within parts of the world where poor strategies of handling storage and food occur more, where malnutrition is an issue and where few rules are made to guard exposed populations. and when inhaled, the spores can cause the lungs to become abnormally sensitive to these particular spores.
1.) Factors of Mycotoxin Production
The central factors taking effect on toxin production are more so genetic factors that are related to the fungus, what strain it is and its genetic capability and environmental characteristics including the base on which fungus will grow, and its nutritious content is made up of. Toxin production also depends majorly on the water content of the base and naturally related humidity, temperature, the content of oxygen-carbon dioxide, mechanical damage, and insects invasion which enables fungal invasion and thus the production of mycotoxin.
If you want to learn more about mycotoxins watch the video below!